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By William R. Elkins

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By William R. Elkins

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Extra resources for A New English Primer: An Introduction to Linguistic Concepts and Systems

Example text

Dn adj N Dn adj Dn adj Dn adj V Dp Dn N N V adj 3· The operatic performance was magnificent. N V adv 4· The first-line soldiers fired hastily. N V Dp Dn adv adj N 5· The traveling man awoke in the early morning light. Dn N Dp adj N V Dn adj Ne 6. The boy with red hair bought a red wagon. Dn adj N V NEG Dn Na 7· The beautiful woman was not the queen. N V Dn N DeN V Dn Ne 8. He is the boy who broke the window. N V DeN V Ne g. I know who saw you. Di 10. V Dn adj N V N> Na To live a good life was his desire.

Syntactically, V endocentric structures take many forms that will substitute into the base pattern. Some were in the foregoing list. Others are: Lions do eat did eat shall eat should eat may eat might eat shall have been eating could have eaten etc. FORM CLASS III The adjectival or adjective class (adj) includes words and endocentric structures that substitute for the third word in a three-word base pattern like Jack was handsome. Many adjectives may pattern with nouns into endocentric structures like handsome Jack, pretty gi1·l, and beautiful trees.

The unacceptability becomes even more apparent if all the aux options appear: the + boy + sing. + will + have + part. + be + ing + Vt +past+ the+ dog+ sing. This string creates the boy will haven being saw the dog. Obviously the initial ordering of elements such as tense is important. + be+ ing + Vt, or would haven being see. To solve the problem, we must move on from phrase-structure rules to those of transformation. Let us start from the beginning and work up to the point at which transformation becomes imperative.

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