By understanding object-relational, other advanced features (j. melton, morgan kaufmann 2003)
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9 Feature $161, "Subtype treatment," provides the capability to instruct the SQL environment to assume that the value of some UDT instance is actually an instance of a specific subtype. 9 Feature $211, "User-defined cast functions," supports syntax allowing type definers to define routines that cast UDT instances to and from other types. 18 Chapter 1 Introduction to SQL:1999 9 Feature $231, "Structured type locators," assists in accessing UDT instances from host programs. 9 Feature $241, "Transform functions," supports syntax allowing type definers to define routines that transform values between UDTs and SQL's predefined data types.
Instances of SQL's structured types are values, no less than instances of SQL's INTEGER type are values. 3, values of a structured type may, under certain circumstances, take on some characteristics of objects, but they are first and foremost values of their user-defined type. In SQL:1999, users may create any n u m b e r of structured types and use them as first-class types in their databases and applications. ) In addition to an internal structure, SQL's structured types can be associated with specific user-defined functions that are used for all comparisons of instances of the type, for casting values of the type to and from other types, and for implementing all sorts of behaviors (that is, semantics) of the type.
4 The SQL Object Model 9 In 1989, several papers were produced in an effort to lay the groundwork for inserting object technology into the database world. One of these 6 proposed that true object-oriented programming language capabilities should form the foundation for creation of object-oriented database systems. Another 7 proposed the addition of extension to relational systems that provided better support for userdefined types and complex data structures. A third 8 argued for retaining the relational aspects of SQL, but extending its type system to include complex types.