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By Gordon McGranahan, Frank Murray

(Earthscan) Murdoch Univ., Australia. textual content stories fresh advancements within the box and their relevance for public health and wellbeing in constructing nations. offers reports from Asian, African, and Latin American nations; and contrasts findings with these from Europe and North the United States. Softcover.

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By Gordon McGranahan, Frank Murray

(Earthscan) Murdoch Univ., Australia. textual content stories fresh advancements within the box and their relevance for public health and wellbeing in constructing nations. offers reports from Asian, African, and Latin American nations; and contrasts findings with these from Europe and North the United States. Softcover.

Show description

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Sample text

Over the course of the 20th century, attitudes and policies towards air pollution were slowly shifting, however, and in many affluent cities air pollution levels declined. As evidence on the health risks accumulated, public concern about the dangers of air pollution grew. As more efficient and clean fuels became available, industrial smoke ceased to be associated with progress and modern technology. As incomes increased and the costs of cleaner technologies and fuels fell, air pollution control became less economically onerous.

Energy policy. The reduction of sulphur and organic toxics content and elimination of lead from the relevant petroleum products, taxes on high polluting fuels (eg coal), the introduction of low polluting fuels (eg compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas) and the encouragement of increased use of locally applicable renewable energy can all reduce emissions considerably. AIR POLLUTION AND HEALTH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES – THE CONTEXT 15 In some cases special measures can be applied in urban centres where emissions are more likely to lead to population exposure.

For example, sulphur dioxide (SO2) may have a direct health impact at the community scale and an impact through acid precipitation at a regional scale. RISK TRANSITION1 There is a tendency, although not an inevitability, for peak environmental risks to shift scale from small to large during the economic development process. 1, environmental hazards in the poorest communities tend to be dominated by risks related to poor water, food and air quality at the household level. These hazards still dominate the environmental risks for some 1000 million people in South Asia.

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