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By Michael Gagarin

Gagarin demonstrates persuasively that Antiphon the logographer is similar with the Antiphon who made highbrow contributions on extra summary subject matters. --Mervin R. Dilts, Professor of Classics, ny college Antiphon used to be a fifth-century Athenian highbrow (ca. 480-411 BCE) who created the career of speechwriting whereas serving as an influential and hugely sought-out adviser to litigants within the Athenian courts. 3 of his speeches are preserved, including 3 units of Tetralogies (four hypothetical paired speeches), whose authenticity is usually doubted. Fragments additionally live on of highbrow treatises on topics together with justice, legislations, and nature (physis), that are frequently attributed to a separate Antiphon the Sophist. have been those Antiphons rather one and a similar person, endowed with a wide-ranging brain able to take on lots of the diversified highbrow pursuits of his day? via an research of some of these writings, this publication convincingly argues that they have been composed through a unmarried person, Antiphon the Athenian. Michael Gagarin units shut readings of person works inside of a much wider dialogue of the fifth-century Athenian highbrow weather and the philosophical ferment referred to as the sophistic flow. this allows him to illustrate the final coherence of Antiphon's pursuits and writings and to teach how he was once a pivotal determine among the sophists and the Attic orators of the fourth century. moreover, Gagarin's argument permits us to re-examine the paintings of the sophists as an entire, so they can now be obvious as basically attracted to trademarks (speech, argument) and as precursors of fourth-century rhetoric, instead of of their traditional position as foils for Plato.

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By Michael Gagarin

Gagarin demonstrates persuasively that Antiphon the logographer is similar with the Antiphon who made highbrow contributions on extra summary subject matters. --Mervin R. Dilts, Professor of Classics, ny college Antiphon used to be a fifth-century Athenian highbrow (ca. 480-411 BCE) who created the career of speechwriting whereas serving as an influential and hugely sought-out adviser to litigants within the Athenian courts. 3 of his speeches are preserved, including 3 units of Tetralogies (four hypothetical paired speeches), whose authenticity is usually doubted. Fragments additionally live on of highbrow treatises on topics together with justice, legislations, and nature (physis), that are frequently attributed to a separate Antiphon the Sophist. have been those Antiphons rather one and a similar person, endowed with a wide-ranging brain able to take on lots of the diversified highbrow pursuits of his day? via an research of some of these writings, this publication convincingly argues that they have been composed through a unmarried person, Antiphon the Athenian. Michael Gagarin units shut readings of person works inside of a much wider dialogue of the fifth-century Athenian highbrow weather and the philosophical ferment referred to as the sophistic flow. this allows him to illustrate the final coherence of Antiphon's pursuits and writings and to teach how he was once a pivotal determine among the sophists and the Attic orators of the fourth century. moreover, Gagarin's argument permits us to re-examine the paintings of the sophists as an entire, so they can now be obvious as basically attracted to trademarks (speech, argument) and as precursors of fourth-century rhetoric, instead of of their traditional position as foils for Plato.

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More specifically, for the Sophists, truth is found in appearances, appearances vary, and therefore everyone’s perception or opinion is true and no one can claim to know more than another. readers that this was the best argument than to shed light on Athenian values at the time. See further Woodruff 1994. 65 The argument of this paragraph is further developed in Gagarin 1999. 32 the sophistic period As influential as this picture has been, it is doubtful whether it accurately represents the views of Protagoras,66 and there is no good evidence that the other Sophists held such views.

But Antiphon fell short of his successors, since (it is said) he was first to practice this style, he discovered this kind of practical (politikos) oratory, and he was the oldest of the ten orators. By contrast, Hermogenes tells us nothing about the career of “the other Antiphon” (ho heteros Antipho¯n), but speaks only of his style, which was “not at all for the public” (politikÚw m¢n ¥kista). ” And since he has read Didymus and other scholars on the subject and has carried out his own investigation, it seems unlikely that these predecessors knew much (if anything) about the career of this hypothetical other Antiphon either.

Moreover, the use of probability arguments to defend the innocent Palamedes belies the claim that probability is necessarily at odds with the truth. The Sophists valued the truth but realized that if direct access to it is impossible, they needed to resort to probabilities. 62 But the close identification of logos with persuasion and the emphasis on the latter in Helen, which provides the justification for Plato’s characterization of Gorgias’s view of rhetoric as “the craftsman of persuasion” (peiyoËw dhmiourgÒw),63 are unique in the writings of the Sophists and are clearly motivated by the needs of Gorgias’s argument.

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